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Archive for the ‘climate’ Category

Grenville Rocks

Just outside Baltimore, there’s a trail in a state park that winds down toward a small river. The river descends down a short rapids, gliding over rock. The rock is unique; it’s over a billion years old. It’s known as the Baltimore gneiss. This is what it looks like:

The DC metro area has been through four mountain-building periods in the past billion years, give or take a few hundred million. The first one raised the Grenville mountains. Over eons, they drifted around the Earth aboard a tectonic plate, eroding, worn down by wind, water and ice. There were four global glaciation events between 900 and 600 million years ago. The ice certainly extended as far as the DC area during these events, and may have girdled the entire planet. In any event, the Grenville mountains were scoured down and the roots that remained became the “basement rock” of the east coast.

Later there was a rifting, a sort of splitting of the Grenville rock, with some blocks being dragged out to sea. Magma welled up and spread, then cooled to form a new layer of rock 2,000 feet thick in some areas. These flows formed the Blue Ridge province, and you can see exposures of that rock at Catocin mountain.

Later another plate began converging on the North American continent, with the ocean floor diving beneath the plate. This generated a chain of underwater volcanoes topped by islands running north and south called the Chopawamsic Arc, similar to the arc of islands in southern Alaska. The plate and these volcanoes eventually converged on the eastern North American coast, sweeping up everything on the sea floor in between, carrying it all back onto the continent where it was raised and mashed and mixed with existing rock. This event created the Taconic mountains.

The Taconics wore down. The Acadian mountains formed when continental fragments collided with the east coast. This episode created much larger mountains than the Taconic. To give you a sense of scale, the erosion of the Acadian mountains created pile of sediment to the west. That pile was 9,000 feet high in central Pennsylvania, sloping down to 1,000 ft in Ohio. That was just the stuff left over after the mountains wore down.

The last period of mountain-building was the biggest one. This time, 250 million years ago, Africa and North America collided as all the other continents came together and formed a single supercontinent known as Pangea. This created the Appalachian mountains, and they were as tall as the Rockies and the Alps when fully formed. They’re much smaller now, of course – that’s what 250 million years of constant erosion does to mountains.


Throughout all of this, the billion-year-old Grenville basement rock has been squeezed, heated, folded and torn apart. It’s metamorphic rock, with complex layers. Most of it still lies deep beneath layers of other rock. But there are some areas around Baltimore where you can see it, and Dylan and I did that today.

This rock is older than multicellular life, at least 400 million years older. It was here 500 million years before land plants existed. Our solar system, along with the entire Milky Way galaxy, completes one rotation around the galactic center every 250 million years. This rock has made the trip four times.

Dylan found some rock fragments at the site and brought them home. The rock has been in the water, it’s hydrated and its age shows. It’s very brittle and flakes easily. As we were leaving, one of the rocks he collected split in half. In that moment, he was gazing on the surface of rock that no one, anywhere, had ever seen before – formed a billion years ago, and only now exposed to light and a 16-year-old’s wondering eyes.


It’s been a good day.

Written by Influential Prose

June 22, 2015 at 7:11 pm

Martian Geology

This image from India’s MOM mission highlights a region with stress fractures – cracks – in Mars’ crust that can run as much as 3 miles deep.  They’re called fossa, sometimes grabens, and they exist on Earth too. Yes, you are riding on a cracked surface. Have a good day.

Elsewhere on Mars, there’s a volcano notable for being about the same height as Mount Everest. (It’s tiny compared to other Martian volcanoes). The linked image shows a forked valley sloping down from the volcano.

Studies of the valleys suggest they were originally formed by lava flows and later altered by water flow. Think about that. It would require an atmosphere that was warm, wet and large enough to rain down into the caldera at the altitude of Everest’s peak.

Obviously the water cycle and atmospheric dynamics are different on a young planet with about 1/3 of earth’s gravity.

The best estimate of when the volcano’s caldera and channels began filling with water date back to the Late Heavy Bombardment, right about the same time bacterial colonies begin to appear in Earth’s fossil record.

Written by Influential Prose

May 25, 2015 at 6:59 pm

Dry Past, Wet Future

I live in the Washington, DC area and was walking past the Supreme Court earlier this week. Like several other DC buildings and museums, it borrows from Greek and Roman architectural traditions and sports a facade that resembles the Parthenon atop the Acropolis in Athens.

The Parthenon was constructed in 447 BC and has been there for 2,462 years, with some changes. It has withstood nearly 25 centuries of weather, being attacked, bombed and burned. As it stands today, it’s both majestic and tragic.

The Supreme Court was completed in 1935, making it 80 years old at this writing. I wondered how it might be affected by climate change. It is 88 feet above sea level, or a bit less than 27 meters. A key concern, of course, is sea level rise.

This projection of sea level rise from The 100 Metre Line blog suggests water will be lapping at the stairs of the Court by 2320, three centuries from now. In the nearby fountain at the Library of Congress, the sculpture of the Roman god Neptune will rejoin the sea.

Supreme Court (left) and Library of Congress
after 30 meters (98 feet) of sea level rise

If sea levels continue rising, the entire Court building could be underwater by 2600, 585 years from now.

After 60 meters (197 feet) of sea level rise

Our understanding of climate change is incomplete, so these numbers aren’t perfect. But they are a realistic, educated estimate based on what we know now.

Washington, DC after 60 meters of sea level rise

This is not yet foreordained. Perhaps we develop mad geoengineering skills, 3D print massive sea walls, or take other measures to mitigate the climate crisis.

But if we maintain our current course, if we fail to develop a global consensus and act, this becomes a likely scenario. And we must act before the changes become too great to roll back.

Incidentally, the Parthenon is 490 feet, or 149 meters above sea level. Even if all the world’s ice melts, it will remain comfortably above sea level.

The Greeks raised their great buildings to last. We are on track to drown ours.

With thanks to the 100 Metre Line and the DrownYourTown simulator.

Written by Influential Prose

January 21, 2015 at 6:51 am